Mineral Elements Chart

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Mineral Elements Required by Animals
Source in Human Diet
Major Functions
Calcium (Ca)
Dairy foods, green leafy vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, eggs
Found in bones and teeth; blood clotting; enzyme activation; nerve and muscle action
Chlorine (Cl)
Table salt (NaCl), eggs, dairy foods, meat, vegetables
Water balance; principal negative ion in tissue fluid, digestion (as HCl)
Magnesium (Mg)
Green vegetables, whole grains, nuts, milk, legumes, meat
Required by many enzymes; found in bones and teeth
Phosphorus (P)
Dairy foods, meat, whole grains, legumes, nuts, eggs
Found in nucleic acids, ATP, and phospholipids; bone formation; metabolism of sugars; buffers
Potassium (K)
Meat, fruits, vegetables, whole grains
Nerve and muscle action; protein synthesis; principal positive ion in cells
Sodium (Na)
Table salt, meat, eggs, vegetables, dairy foods
Nerve and muscle action; water balance, principal positive ion in tissue fluid
Sulfur (S)
Meat, eggs, nuts, legumes, dairy foods
Found in proteins and coenzymes; detoxification of harmful substances
Chromium (Cr)
Meat, dairy foods, dried beans, whole grains, brewer's yeast, peanuts
Glucose metabolism
Cobalt (Co)
Meat, tap water
Found in vitamin B12; formation of red blood cells
Copper (Cu)
Liver, fish, legumes, nuts, meat, shellfish, whole grains
Found in active site of many redox enzymes and electron carriers; production of hemoglobin; bone formation
Fluorine (Fl)
Most water supplies
Resistance to tooth decay
Iodine (I)
Fish, shellfish, iodized salt
Found in thyroid hormones
Iron (Fe)
Liver, green vegetables, whole grains, nuts, meat, eggs, legumes
Found in active sites of many redox enzymes and electron carriers, hemoglobin, and myoglobin
Manganese (Mn)
Organ meats, whole grains, legumes, tea, coffee, nuts
Activates many enzymes
Molybdenum (Mo)
Organ meats, dairy foods, green vegetables, whole grains, legumes
Found in some enzymes
Selenium (Se)
Meat, eggs, seafood, whole grains, chicken, milk, garlic
Fat metabolism
Zinc (Zn)
Liver, shellfish, fish, and many other foods
Found in some enzymes and some transcription factors; insulin physiology

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