Guide to Common Cancers

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Cancer Type
What you can do
Bladder Cancer
Blood in the urine (making the urine slightly rusty to deep red),
Pain during urination, and
Frequent urination, or feeling the need to urinate without results.
(These symptoms are not sure signs of bladder cancer)
Stop smoking
Follow Health and Safety regulations at work
Breast Cancer
A change in how the breast or nipple feels
A change in how the breast or nipple looks
Nipple discharge (fluid)
Avoid becoming obese
Reduce your intake of fat
Be 'Breast Aware'
Attend for breast screening when invited
Colon and Rectal Cancer
Having diarrhea or constipation
Feeling that your bowel does not empty completely
Finding blood (either bright red or very dark) in your stool
Finding your stools are narrower than usual
Frequently having gas pains or cramps, or feeling full or bloated
Losing weight with no known reason
Feeling very tired all the time
Having nausea or vomiting
Eat fruits and vegetables
Choose diets low in fat
Endometrial Cancer
Unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge
Difficult or painful urination
Pain during intercourse
Pain in the pelvic area
Kidney Cancer
Blood in the urine (making the urine slightly rusty to deep red)
Pain in the side that does not go away
A lump or mass in the side or the abdomen
Weight loss
Feeling very tired or having a general feeling of poor health
Fevers or night sweats
Frequent infections
Feeling weak or tired
Bleeding and bruising easily (bleeding gums, purplish patches in the skin, or tiny red spots under the skin)
Pain in the bones or joints
Swelling or discomfort in the abdomen (from an enlarged spleen)
Swollen lymph nodes, especially in the neck or armpit
Weight loss
Guide to Common Cancers
Lung Cancer
A cough that gets worse or does not go away
Breathing trouble, such as shortness of breath
Constant chest pain
Coughing up blood
A hoarse voice
Frequent lung infections, such as pneumonia
Feeling very tired all the time
Weight loss with no known cause
Avoid inhaling other people's smoke
Eat nutrient rich fruits and vegetables
Often, the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of an existing mole. Most melanomas have a black or blue-black area. Melanoma also may appear as a new mole. It may be black, abnormal, or “ugly looking.”
Protect your skin from UV radiation
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Swollen, painless lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin
Unexplained weight loss
Soaking night sweats
Coughing, trouble breathing, or chest pain
Weakness and tiredness that don't go away
Pain, swelling, or a feeling of fullness in the abdomen
Pancreatic Cancer
Pain in the upper abdomen or upper back
Yellow skin and eyes, and dark urine from jaundice
Loss of appetite
Nausea and vomiting
Stop Smoking
Prostate Cancer
Not being able to urinate
Having a hard time starting or stopping the urine flow
Needing to urinate often, especially at night
Weak flow of urine
Urine flow that starts and stops
Pain or burning during urination
Difficulty having an erection
Blood in the urine or semen
Frequent pain in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs
Choose healthy diets
Eat fruits and vegetables
Skin Cancer
A change on the skin is the most common sign of skin cancer. This may be a new growth, a sore that doesn't heal, or a change in an old growth. Not all skin cancers look the same. Skin changes to watch for:
Small, smooth, shiny, pale, or waxy lump
Firm, red lump
Sore or lump that bleeds or develops a crust or a scab
Flat red spot that is rough, dry, or scaly and may become itchy or tender
Red or brown patch that is rough and scaly
Thyroid Cancer
A lump in the front of the neck
Hoarseness or voice changes
Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
Trouble swallowing or breathing
Pain in the throat or neck that does not go away