Tetralogy of Fallot

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Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect. Congenital heart defects change the normal flow of blood through the heart. Tetralogy of Fallot is a rare heart defect which occurs in about 5 out every 10,000 babies.
Source: National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health. www.nhlbi.nih.gov
Large Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
VSD is a hole in the part of the septum that separates the ventricles—the lower chambers of the heart. The hole allows oxygen-rich blood to flow from the left ventricle into the right ventricle instead of flowing into the aorta, the main artery leading out to the body.
Pulmonary Stenosis
This is a narrowing of the pulmonary valve and the passageway through which blood flows from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries. Normally, oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle flows through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary arteries and out to the lungs to pick up oxygen. In pulmonary stenosis, the heart has to work harder than normal to pump blood, and not enough blood can get to the lungs
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
This is when the right ventricle thickens because the heart has to pump harder than it should to move blood through the narrowed pulmonary valve.
Overriding Aorta
This is a defect in the location of the aorta. In a healthy heart, the aorta is attached to the left ventricle, allowing only oxygen-rich blood to go to the body. In tetralogy of Fallot, the aorta is between the left and right ventricles, directly over the VSD. As a result, oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle can flow directly into the aorta instead of into the pulmonary artery to the lungs.
Tetralogy of Fallot involves
four defects
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