Vitamins - Description, Occurrence, and Methods of Production
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Description, Occurrence, and Methods of Production
Animal tissue, especially liver. Carotenoids, which are precursors, found in plants.
Most is synthetic. Must be stabilized with anitoxidants
Commercially possible but not common.
Small quantities extracted
Fish oils. Solvent extraction, distillation, and purification
Calciferols vitamins D1 through D4
Formed in the body
with exposure to sunlight. Present in cod liver oil or food oils exposed to UV light.
Most is synthetic
Plant oils, especially wheat germ, corn, sunflower seed, rapeseed, soybean
Synthetically produced for animal and industrial purposes
Extracted from natural sources for human consumption.
Deodorizer sludges from vegetable oil production
Phylloquinone, menaquinone, menadione
Higher plants, green and blue algae, liver, cheese, bacteria
Whole grains, meat products, vegetables, milk, legumes, fruit
Milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, leafy vegetables, yeast
Produced by fermentation mostly for animal feed.
Niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, Vitamin PP
Meats and fish
Fish, dairy products, red meats, eggs, organ meats
Produced exclusively by fermentation.
Was done in the past, but no longer economical.
Residues from production of antibiotics
Vitamin H, coenzyme R
Most foods, especially milk and cheese. Synthesized by microorganisms in intestines.
Yes—methods are improving.
Folates, Vitamin Bc, Vitamin M
Green leafy vegetables, liver, kidney, mushrooms, yeast
Fresh fruits and vegetables, hip berries, fresh tea leaves
Produced synthetically from naturally occurring sugars
Fermentation methods are being developed.
Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration