First-Trimester Bleeding

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First-Trimester Bleeding
Ectopic pregnancy
This occurs when the fertilized egg implants and starts to grow outside the uterus. The woman may feel sudden, sharp abdominal pains or cramps, virginal bleeding, and faintness.
Threatened miscarriage
When there is prolonged early bleeding in the first trimester, whether or not accompanied by cramps, the situation is termed a "threatened miscarriage." Because miscarriage is so common this early in pregnancy, bedrest is sometimes the only course of action advised. In about half the cases, by the time bleeding begins, the embryo or fetus has already stopped forming and the situation is then termed an inevitable miscarriage.
Placental tears
occasionally its possible for a small bit of the placenta to tear away from the uterine wall, causing bright red bleeding. The cause is usually unknown. Such tears are not thought to be caused by the mother's actions. Nor is this kind of bleeding the same as placenta previa, in which the placenta lies law on the cervix and can cause painless bleeding as the cervix dilates, or placenta abruptio, in which more than a quarter of the placenta tears away from the uterine wall.
Cervical abrasions
After a bleeding episode, you'll usually be asked if you've recently had intercourse. That's because the penis can rub against the tender cervix in such a way that produces a slight irritation or inflammation. A little blood is produced and that's the end of it. It doesn't mean that sex is unsafe or that you should abstain, because the bleeding is caused simply by the skin abrasion. Less commonly, a cervical infection can cause bleeding.
Implantation bleeding
Sometimes this occurs when the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine wall, at roughly the same time you would normally be expecting a period. This produces just very slight spotting (usually pale) with not cramping

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