Child Developmental Stages

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Child Developmental Stages
Milestones
7 months
1 year
Movement
Rolls both ways (front to back, back to front)
Sits with, and then without, support of her hands
Supports her whole weight on her legs
Reaches with one hand
Transfers object from hand to hand
Uses raking grasp (not pincer)
Gets to sitting position without assistance
Crawls forward on belly by pulling with arms and pushing with legs
Assumes hands-and-knees position
Creeps on hands and knees supporting trunk on hands and knees
Gets from sitting to crawling or prone (lying on stomach) position
Pulls self up to stand
Walks holding on to furniture
Stands momentarily without support
May walk two or three steps without support
Hand and finger skills
(Visual milestones)
Develops full color vision
Distance vision matures
Ability to track moving objects improves
Uses pincer grasp
Bangs two cubes together
Puts objects into container
Takes objects out of container
Lets objects go voluntarily
Pokes with index finger
Tries to imitate scribbling
Language
Responds to own name
Begins to respond to "no"
Distinguishes emotions by tone of voice
Responds to sound by making sounds
Uses voice to express joy and displeasure
Babbles chains of consonants
Pays increasing attention to speech
Responds to simple verbal requests
Responds to “no”
Uses simple gestures, such as shaking head for “no”
Babbles with inflection
Says “dada” and “mama”
Uses exclamations, such as “oh-oh!”
Tries to imitate words
Cognitive
Finds partially hidden object
Explores with hands and mouth
Struggles to get objects that are out of reach
Explores objects in many different ways (shaking, banging, throwing, dropping)
Finds hidden objects easily
Looks at correct picture when the image is named
Imitates gestures
Begins to use objects correctly (drinking from cup, brushing hair, dialing phone, listening to receiver)
Social and emotional
Enjoys social play
Interested in mirror images
Responds to other people's expressions of emotion and appears joyful often
Shy or anxious with strangers
Cries when mother or father leaves
Enjoys imitating people in play
Shows specific preferences for certain people and toys
Tests parental responses to his actions during feedings (What do you do when he refuses a food?)
Tests parental responses to his behavior (What do you do if he cries after you leave the room?)
May be fearful in some situations
Prefers mother and/or regular caregiver over all others
Repeats sounds or gestures for attention
Finger-feeds himself
Extends arm or leg to help when being dressed
2 years
3 to 4 years
Walks alone
Pulls toys behind her while walking
Carries large toy or several toys while walking
Begins to run
Stands on tiptoe
Kicks a ball
Climbs onto and down from furniture unassisted
Walks up and down stairs holding on to support
Hops and stands on one foot up to five seconds
Goes upstairs and downstairs without support
Kicks ball forward
Throws ball overhand
Catches bounced ball most of the time
Moves forward and backward with agility
Scribbles spontaneously
Turns over container to pour out contents
Builds tower of four blocks or more
Might use one hand more frequently than the other
Copies square shapes
Draws a person with two to four body parts
Uses scissors
Draws circles and squares
Begins to copy some capital letters
Points to object or picture when it’s named for him
Recognizes names of familiar people, objects, and body parts
Says several single words (by fifteen to eighteen months)
Uses simple phrases (by eighteen to twenty-four months)
Uses two- to four-word sentences
Follows simple instructions
Repeats words overheard in conversation
Understands the concepts of “same” and “different”
Has mastered some basic rules of grammar
Speaks in sentences of five to six words
Speaks clearly enough for strangers to understand
Tells stories
Finds objects even when hidden under two or three covers
Begins to sort by shapes and colors
Begins make-believe play
Correctly names some colors
Understands the concept of counting and may know a few numbers
Approaches problems from a single point of view
Begins to have a clearer sense of time
Follows three-part commands
Recalls parts of a story
Understands the concept of same/different
Engages in fantasy play
Imitates behavior of others, especially adults and older children
Increasingly aware of herself as separate from others
Increasingly enthusiastic about company of other children
Demonstrates increasing independence
Begins to show defiant behavior
Increasing episodes of separation anxiety toward midyear, then they fade
Interested in new experiences
Cooperates with other children
Plays “Mom” or “Dad”
Increasingly inventive in fantasy play
Dresses and undresses
Negotiates solutions to conflicts
More independent
Imagines that many unfamiliar images may be “monsters”
Views self as a whole person involving body, mind, and feelings
Often cannot distinguish between fantasy and reality
4 to 5 years
Stands on one foot for ten seconds or longer
Hops, somersaults
Swings, climbs
May be able to skip
Copies triangle and other geometric patterns
Draws person with body
Prints some letters
Dresses and undresses without assistance
Uses fork, spoon, and (sometimes) a table knife
Usually cares for own toilet needs
Recalls part of a story
Speaks sentences of more than five words
Uses future tense
Tells longer stories
Says name and address
Can count ten or more objects
Correctly names at least four colors
Better understands the concept of time
Knows about things used every day in the home (money, food, appliances)
Wants to please friends
Wants to be like her friends
More likely to agree to rules
Likes to sing, dance, and act
Shows more independence and may even visit a next-door neighbor by herself
Aware of sexuality
Able to distinguish fantasy from reality
Sometimes demanding, sometimes eagerly cooperative