What is a Genogram?
A genogram is graphical representation of a person's family relationship and medical history. It is a unique type of family research diagram. It records family members and their relationships to each other. It also shows many of their physical and physiological attributes through an elaborate system of symbols.
Anthropologists often call genograms kinship diagrams and they use these kinship diagrams to visualize relationships when interviewing subjects.
Common Genogram Symbols
In a genogram, female family members are represented by circles and males by squares.
To represent someone who is deceased, you'd draw an x through their symbol.
A pregnancy is usually represented with a triangle and an x through the triangle reflects a miscarriage or abortion.
The lines between people represent inherited traits related to disease or emotional relationships.
A genogram can be very helpful in determining an individual's probability of inheriting a certain characteristic or disease. For this reason, genograms have many unique symbols to denote often inherited medical conditions including Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and cancers.
How to Make a Genogram
If you use SmartDraw, you'll want to start by opening our genogram template. This will already contain a basic family unit on the page: a couple and two kids. You can modify, add, or delete this.
Select a shape and choose "Add Parent" or "Add Child" in the SmartPanel to add to your family unit. For example, to add another child, you'll want to select one of the parents and hit the "Add Child" button. This will automatically add another child to your chart. The gender or condition of the person added will depend on which shape you have selected in the Genogram library to left of your drawing area.
Watch this video on how to make a genogram.
Common Uses of a Genogram
Genograms are useful in almost any profession that deals with patterns of heredity and psychological issues. They are useful in the study of disease, behavior, and social interaction.
- Medical genograms enable practitioners to evaluate an individual's health risks. Knowledge of pre-existing health conditions can help physicians accurately diagnosis and provide the appropriate treatment of health problems. For the individual, having knowledge of diseases or illnesses common to the family can give an individual a head start in taking preventive measures. Documenting four generations may prove to be sufficient detail.
- Sociologists use genograms to gather objective information and track trends across generations. This allows them to view the client's issues as it relates to the client's marital and family relationships.
- A genogram displays the emotional bonds among individuals composing a family or social unit. A genogram functions as an assessment tool to measure the cohesiveness of the group in order to determine the proper care that is needed. This type of information is invaluable for a social worker.
- Genograms provide family counselors or therapists with a starting point to explain family dynamics to a client who is going through personal or family therapy.
- Genealogists are able use genograms to document complex family trees that include information regarding marriages and divorces, adoption, strained relationships, etc. The genogram can be used to examine interesting family history such as naming patterns, rivalry, or significant events.
Genogram Templates and Examples
The best way to understand genograms is to look at some examples of genograms.
Click on any of these genograms included in SmartDraw and edit them:
Browse SmartDraw's entire collection of genogram examples and templates.